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Chronic Health Needs

Fluoride Varnish Can Help Prevent Tooth Decay
Healthy gums and teeth are important to your child’s overall health. This is why your child’s doctor will talk with you about good dental habits even before your child’s first tooth appears.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Abnormal Immunity: An Overview
No one knows for sure how many children have suppressed immune systems. It is becoming more common as more children receive transplants and survive serious problems with their immune systems like HIV. Some children have temporary alterations in their immune system from medications and the immune system returns to normal when the medication is stopped.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Allergic Skin Conditions
Estimates are that up to 20% of infants and young children may be affected by eczema at some point. There is no good data about how frequently hives and contact dermatitis occur.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Allergies: An Overview
Allergies are very common. In a national study of children with special health care needs, 53% had allergies of some type.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Anaphylaxis
The key adaptation to avoiding anaphylaxis is to try to avoid the allergen. This may mean
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Asthma
Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in children, affecting between 5% and 10%.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Behavior management skills that can be included in a Care Plan include
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Autism Spectrum Disorders
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of developmental disabilities caused by a problem with the brain. Children with ASDs have trouble in 3 core areas of their development.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Bleeding Disorders: An Overview
Bleeding disorders vary in types and severity, so it is best to get details about the specific child’s needs from parents/ guardians and the child’s specialty doctors.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Cancer
Ask the child’s oncologist for suggested training resources.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Celiac Disease (Gluten-Sensitive Enteropathy or Celiac Sprue)
The treatment team includes a pediatric gastroenterologist and registered dietitians or nutritionists.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Cerebral Palsy (CP)
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a condition caused by brain injury that interferes with messages from the brain to the body; this interference affects movements and muscle coordination.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Childhood Obesity
Childhood obesity is a serious medical condition that affects children and adolescents. It occurs when a child is well above the normal weight for the child’s age and height.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate
Develop strategies for accommodating children with cleft lip or cleft palate. Suggestions include
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Cystic Fibrosis (CF)
There are currently about 30,000 children and young adults with CF in the United States.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Developmental Delay
Children have developmental delay when they do not attain the skills that typically developing children acquire at a certain age. Child development is a process that involves learning and mastering skills such as sitting, rolling over, walking, understanding, and talking. Typically developing children learn specific skills, called developmental milestones, during predictable time periods.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Diabetes
Physical activity is important to the health of children with type 2 diabetes, so outdoor play is part of their therapy. Children with type 1 diabetes should be able to play normally. Staff should take a portable pack with insulin, syringes, high-calorie supplements, and glucagon in case of emergency whenever the child is in a different location or on a field trip. A glucometer to check blood sugar should also be available.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Down Syndrome
Down syndrome is a relatively common birth defect caused by extra genetic material from chromosome 21 (ie, there are 3 copies of chromosome 21 rather than 2). This syndrome affects the physical and intellectual development of the child.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Eczema(Atopic Dermatitis)
Eczema (atopic dermatitis) is a long-lasting skin condition that causes the skin to be overly sensitive to many things.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS)
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a collection of inherited conditions that cause the tissues that connect parts of the body (connective tissue) to be loose. This can cause loose joints, stretchy skin, and delayed healing of the skin. This collection of conditions was reclassified in 2017, so it is important to have information that is specific to the child.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term used to describe the range of adverse fetal effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Food Allergies
Allergy is the term used to describe the body’s overreaction to something that it views as foreign or different from itself. The body reacts by releasing histamine and other substances that cause allergic symptoms.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Fragile X Syndrome
Fragile X syndrome is an inherited form of intellectual disability that is primarily seen in males. It is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability. Fragile X syndrome is caused by the FMR1 gene on the X chromosome.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
Babies with GERD can choke; a bulb syringe should be available to help clear the airway if necessary. If the baby is coughing, nothing should be done because the cough is the most effective way to clear the airway. If the baby stops breathing or making any sound, CPR techniques for infants should be used. These maneuvers are covered in pediatric first aid with CPR courses such as the American Academy of Pediatrics course, Pediatric First Aid for Caregivers and Teachers.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Gastrostomy Tubes
Gastrostomy tubes are placed in children for many reasons, including prematurity, feeding problems, and brain disorders, and they have become more prevalent as lifesaving medical treatments for children have improved.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Hearing Loss and Deafness/Hard of Hearing
The Care Plan for children with hearing loss may include
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Heart Conditions, Nonstructural
Approximately 4,000 children are diagnosed with Kawasaki disease every year and most are younger than 5 years.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Heart Conditions: An Overview
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Heart Defects, Structural
Thirty-five thousand babies are born every year in the United States with these problems, according to the American Heart Association.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Hepatitis
Hepatitis means liver inflammation. Most of the time, hepatitis is caused by a viral infection of the liver. The most common types are hepatitis A, B, and C.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Hip Problems
What are hip problems in children and how common are they?
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—HIV Infection
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Hydrocephalus and Shunts
Hydrocephalus is the abnormal accumulation of spinal fluid, called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), within the brain. Hydrocephalus can be caused by a structural defect in the brain or spine that blocks CSF and causes it to accumulate. Sometimes a brain injury, especially one that causes bleeding, can interfere with the flow of CSF and cause it to build up and increase pressure. Sometimes, the brain can shrink because of brain damage and the CSF fills in the extra space. That condition does not cause pressure on the brain and does not require special treatment.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Immune Thrombocytopenia
The treatment team may consist of the primary care provider and a hematologist.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA)
Arthritis is swelling and pain of the joints. When this problem is chronic, the most common form is juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Kidney and Other Urinary Tract Problems
Nephrotic syndrome can occur at any age but is most common between the ages of 18 months and 8 years. Boys are affected more often than girls. A child may come to the child care or school with the diagnosis or may develop it while enrolled.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Marfan Syndrome
Marfan syndrome is an inherited condition. It affects the tissues that connect parts of the body.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Mitochondrial Disorders
Mitochondrial disorders are a diverse group of diseases caused by damage to small structures found in human cells that are essential in converting food to energy. The result is decreased energy production and associated symptoms.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Muscular Dystrophy
Muscular dystrophy is a group of genetic diseases that cause muscle wasting and weakness. The most common type is Duchenne muscular dystrophy, which is progressive and occurs only in boys.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS)
Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a drug withdrawal syndrome that some infants experience after birth and that generally follows exposure to an opioid.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Neurofibromatosis (NF) and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC)
There are many types of neurocutaneous syndromes (syndromes that include skin findings). The most common is neurofibromatosis (NF). There are 7 types of NF. Although they are all different, they all have skin and neurologic findings. Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is the most common type, and, while it is inherited, half of the cases are new mutations.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS)
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic condition that affects the brain and causes newborns and young infants to be weak and slow to gain weight but shifts to causing excessive hunger and weight gain in toddlers. It affects boys and girls equally.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Preterm Newborns (Preemies): An Overview
One in 10 babies (9.6%) was born prematurely in the United States in 2016.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Seizures, Febrile
Febrile seizures are described as generalized (whole brain and body involved), tonic-clonic (shaking) movements of a child’s body in response to a high fever. These seizures represent abnormal brain electrical activity triggered by fever.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Seizures, Nonfebrile (Epilepsy)
Seizures represent the most common neurologic disorder in children. About 1% of all children have a type of non-febrile seizure disorder, or epilepsy.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Short-Stature Conditions
More than 100 specific conditions have been identified that can cause short stature. Achondroplasia occurs in people of all races and with equal frequency in males and females, and it affects about 1 in every 26,000 children. An estimated 10,000 individuals in the United States have achondroplasia.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Sickle Cell Disease
Children with sickle cell disease should have at least 8 cups of water or fluid per day.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Special Diets and Inborn Errors of Metabolism
Some of the more common inborn errors of metabolism include
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Spina Bifida
Spina bifida means cleft spine, which is an incomplete closure in the spinal column. The 4 types of spina bifida are
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Spleen Problems
Because the spleen can be affected differently by different diseases, it is difficult to say how many children have spleen problems.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Tracheostomy
The Care Plan should address
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) (Includes Concussion)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by a direct blow to the head with different amounts of force that cause mild, moderate, or severe brain injury. Mild TBI can be called a concussion.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Turner Syndrome
Turner syndrome is a genetic condition that only affects girls and women. It occurs when 1 of the 2 X chromosomes normally found in females is missing or incomplete.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Vesicostomy
A vesicostomy is a surgical opening in the bladder to the outside of the body (lower belly) that allows urine to come out, preventing urinary tract infection and damage to the kidneys. Urine drains constantly from this opening. The child will need to wear a diaper, training pants (Pull-Ups), or an incontinence pad. A vesicostomy is sometimes a temporary treatment.
Managing Chronic Health Needs in Child Care and Schools—Visual Impairments
Students With Chronic Health Conditions: Guidance for Families, Schools, and Students
School is more than a place to gain knowledge and skills. It also is a place where children meet new friends and learn about themselves and other important life lessons. Because children spend many hours in school, it is important that it be a safe and supportive environment for all children.

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